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Graphs and Data

[vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_tabs interval=”0″][vc_tab title=”Overview” tab_id=”1404930227-1-60ffb9-6a3b”][vc_column_text]Graphical representation of data is a concept developed throughout the K-12 mathematics curriculum that has broad applications in the real world. Data graphs are used to communicate information in almost every sector of the workforce and it’s important that students understand not only how to create these visuals but also interpret the data within them. According to the Educational Resources Information Center, “Graphs can summarize very complex information or relationship very effectively. Although graphs are explicitly taught in mathematics classrooms as an end in themselves, many subject areas such as science or social studies utilize graphs to represent and interpret relationships. So being able to interpret or construct graphical representation is a crucial skill for every student whether they want to pursue science or mathematics related careers” (Ozgun-Koca, 2001).

This concept of graphing data first appears in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in the second grade. Students begin to develop their understanding of graphical representations at this age with the creation of simple line plots, picture, and bar graphs to represent categorical and quantitative data in whole number units. They refine these skills throughout the rest of the elementary grades and upon progression to the middle grades they are exposed to histograms, box plots, scatter plots and a basic understanding of the graph of linear models. At the high school level, students use graphical representations within the domains of algebra and functions to communicate meaning about the behavior of functions (2014).

Below is a list of Defined STEM performance tasks at each grade band that challenge students to represent data graphically. There is also emphasis on the presentation of these graphs to connect for students the idea that graphs are meant to communicate information to wider groups of people.[/vc_column_text][/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”References” tab_id=”1404930227-2-66ffb9-6a3b”][vc_column_text]

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tab][/vc_tabs][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_text_separator title=”Elementary School” title_align=”separator_align_center” color=”green”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_accordion title=”Performance Tasks” collapsible=”yes” active_tab=”false”][vc_accordion_tab title=”Data Analyst”][vc_column_text]

During the past year, a number of baseball bat companies have approached the University of Eastern Pennsylvania with suggestions as to the type of bat that should be selected and used by the baseball team. The team may only purchase new bats once every three years due to budget constraints. It is critical that they choose the best, most technically advanced bats so as not to be at a disadvantage with other teams. A conflict of interest has arisen, since most of the companies are offering suggestions that include buying their bats. You have been hired to help the baseball team make the best possible choice. Your choice will affect the team for the next three years. The data gathering and analysis process will be vital to your decision. The audience will need to be able to view the data in a manner that is user-friendly and easy to understand.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3Fc6a7j|title:Data%20Analyst|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Planning Commission: Urban Heat Islands”][vc_column_text]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified “urban heat islands” as areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. This situation can negatively impact the atmosphere and surrounding area. Additionally, this situation can increase peak energy demand, air conditioning costs and water quality. You will also need to provide them with practical strategies on how they can help minimize the urban heat islands through building practices and landscaping. Additionally, if they choose to do this they may want marketing materials that they can distribute within their city.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3F53sye|title:Planning%20Commission%3A%20Urban%20Heat%20Islands|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][/vc_accordion][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_text_separator title=”Middle School” title_align=”separator_align_center” color=”green”][vc_accordion title=”Performance Tasks” collapsible=”yes” active_tab=”false”][vc_accordion_tab title=”Online Space Weather Business”][vc_column_text]

Space weather is becoming increasingly critical in a society that relies on electricity for power and cell phone technologies for communication. Companies and communities need to be educated in and prepared for high solar activity. Satellites today provide a wealth of information, much of it in real-time, relating to the sun and space weather. As a new company, you will be gathering this information and data to provide businesses with critical information relating to their service to their customers. Additionally, these businesses will rely on your company for educational resources that can be shared with business personnel and customers.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3F6752r|title:Online%20Space%20Weather%20Business|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Baseball Bat Analyst”][vc_column_text]

During the past year, a number of baseball bat companies have approached the University of Eastern Pennsylvania with suggestions as to the type of bat that should be selected and used by the baseball team. The team may only purchase new bats once every three years due to budget constraints. It is critical that they choose the best, most technically advanced bats so as not to be at a disadvantage with other teams. A conflict of interest has arisen, since most of the companies are offering suggestions that include buying their bats. You have been hired to help the baseball team make the best possible choice. Your choice will affect the team for the next three years. The data gathering and analysis process will be vital to your decision. The audience will need to be able to view the data in a manner that is user-friendly and easy to understand.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3F3q4dr|title:Baseball%20Bat%20Analyst|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Researcher: Sampling “][vc_column_text]

Sampling is a common form of research that allows the researcher to gain information on the big picture by obtaining representative samples. This form of data gathering is utilized in science, environmental studies, social studies, business, and advertising. You can choose any topic that you desire, and you will need to create a research study using sampling to demonstrate to leaders, and potential clients, the value that the data can contain, and the conclusions that can be drawn from the data.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3Fo2sa4|title:Researcher%3A%20Sampling|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][/vc_accordion][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_text_separator title=”High School” title_align=”separator_align_center” color=”green”][vc_accordion title=”Performance Tasks” collapsible=”yes” active_tab=”false”][vc_accordion_tab title=”Wind Energy Specialist “][vc_column_text]

As an energy specialist, you have the opportunity to present information on the environmental benefits, as well as financial benefits, of wind energy. You will be presenting your research regarding this form of alternative energy to communities and electric companies. Your goal is to have the electric companies agree to add wind energy to their electric grid as part of the electrical services that they offer to regional communities.

[/vc_column_text][vc_button2 title=”Enter Task” color=”blue” size=”sm” link=”url:http%3A%2F%2Fdlrn.us%3Fvqor4|title:Wind%20Energy%20Specialist|target:%20_blank” style=”rounded”][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Microbiologist: Biofuels”][vc_column_text]

As energy companies look to replace fossil fuels, alternative energy sources are being considered. These sources will need to create a great deal of energy to meet man’s energy needs and fully replace fossil fuels. The belief is that these fuels can help slowly reduce reliance on fossil fuels.

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